SEALING VARIOUS JOINT TYPES IN BUILDINGS
c) Expansion (isolation) joints: Expansion joints are made by providing a space over the entire cross section between abutting structural units and are used to prevent crushing and distortion of abutting concrete structural units due to the transmission of compressive forces that may be developed by expansion, applied loads, or differential movements arising from the configuration of the structure or its settlement.
d) Construction joints: Construction joints are formed by interruptions in the placement of concrete or due to the positioning of precast units. Locations are usually predetermined so as to limit the work that can be done at one time to a convenient size. They may be required to function later as expansion or contraction joints, or they may be required to be firmly bonded together so as to maintain complete structural integrity. Construction joints may run horizontally or vertically depending on the placing sequence prescribed by the design of the structure.
e) Sealing methods: Methods to seal joints include injection techniques, routing and caulking, bonding, installing pre-molded seals, or installing appropriate surface protection systems (such as elastomeric membranes).